Saturday, March 14, 2020

APA Style Made Easy

APA Style Made Easy So, youre getting ready to write a scholarly research paper, dissertation or journal article and have been told that APA style must be used. Who is this APA and why must you suddenly follow their rules?APA stands for the American Psychological Association and the groups type of publication style began in the 1920s as a writing style used in scientific and psychological journals. Over the years, the style expanded from there and has quickly become the most commonly used style for dissertation writing in a wide array of scientific disciplines.If youre readying to write a paper of any advanced length in APA style, my first advice is to get the most recent APA Style Guide. Its an investment well worth the price for the mere ability to look up any minutia you need to while typing away at your computer at 3 a.m. And in the meantime, Ive compiled a list below of some of the most common basics of APA style that I find myself editing for regularly.One space between sentencesFirst and foremost , APA style requires that only one space appears between the end of one sentence and the beginning of another. This may or may not be a style you have used in previously written work – if not, the easiest way to remedy this is to do a find in Word at the end of writing and replace every two spaces with one.Spacing, margins and font preferencesDouble spacing is the preferred choice for APA, with (of course) exceptions for longer quotations that require special formatting and/or indentations. Preferred APA style margins are one inch for the top, bottom, left and right of the paper (and sometimes are altered by college departments or publications to leave one and a quarter inches on the left for additional space for binding purposes). Font choice for APA style leans toward the standard Times New Roman or Arial that most word processing programs are defaulted to, or that professors typically request their students write papers in. Font size is also the standard 12 point.Commas in listWhile most basic English writing styles require that in lists of three or more a comma not be used after the second item and the word and or or, APA style is an exception to that rule. In fact, APA requires that commas do appear between a second item in a list and the and or or at all times. Proper APA style would be, for instance, She likes tomatoes, cucumbers, and carrots.Punctuation with quotation useAnother APA style quirk is its contradicting use of punctuation outside of quotation marks. While typical English style directs all punctuation be contained inside quotation marks, APA style calls for punctuation to be left outside of quotation marks for incomplete thoughts or sentences. An example would be, for instance:He said hed never seen monkeys eat so many bananas.If a sentence or thought is completed within quotation marks in an APA style writing, however, the punctuation does stay within the quotation marks then, however. An example would be:Studies identified two types of bananas as most commonly eaten by monkeys.In-text citations versus naming authors within the textThe format of an in-text citation within parentheses versus naming authors within the text is one that I see commonly confused when editing APA style writing. In particular, there is a distinction between when you should use an sign and when the word and should be used between author last names. For instance, naming authors within the text should use and, such as:Johnson and Smith (1999) studied the tendency of monkeys to like bananas.Conversely, an in-text citation should use the sign between last names of authors, such as:It was found that many monkeys preferred unripe bananas overripe ones (Johnson Smith, 1999).Numbers and percentagesLike many other writing styles, APA style dictates that numbers 10 or above be written in Arabic numerals. Numbers below that, such as one through nine, should be written out. However, when percentages come into play, regardless of the number, it s hould be written as an Arabic numeral and directly followed by the percent sign, like so: 8%.Also, as with so many writing rules, there is an exception. If more than one number is being listed and one of those is below 10, the numbers should all be written as Arabic when presented together in a group or list. An example would be, She said 5 to 15 monkeys came to the tree each day.Heading systemsAnd finally, one of the least embraced rules of APA style is perhaps one of the easiest to learn (or bookmark at the very least). It appears on page 113 of the APA Publication Manual, Fifth Edition. The five levels of APA headings are detailed there, but most writers typically use only the first three, and sometimes the fourth. The fifth heading is used mainly for scholarly paper title pages and rarely, if at all, in journal articles.In sum, APA style has lots of little ins and outs, but these basics above should help you get on your way to getting the big differences taken care of. As with e verything, of course, its always good to check your own college, department or journals style handbook as well, which can even further deviate from typical APA style with its own set of writing rules.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Critically discuss the selection, role and responsibilities of the Essay

Critically discuss the selection, role and responsibilities of the expert witness in the criminal justice system - Essay Example Nonetheless, not every piece of evidence in a case is presented to the adjudicators; just the evidence that is important and acceptable serves a function in the conclusion of a case. Hence, an expert is defined in the legal system as ‘a person who, by reason of education or special training, possesses knowledge of a particular subject area in greater depth than does the public at large’2. With the rising difficulty of cases, specifically those that involve technical or scientific issues, the expert witness has become crucial to litigation’s success. The Rule 702 states that experts have a substantial influence over usual witnesses due to the fact that they are â€Å"the only witnesses who are permitted to reflect, opine, and pontificate. Experts can provide a bridge between the particular facts of a case and patterns of fact that can be observed and understood only through much wider study†.3 In general, experts are perceived as favourable contributors in c ourt trials. Nonetheless, experts can be at the same time described as ‘hired guns’ and ‘liars’.4 Regardless, one thing is for sure: the exploitation of experts is persistent. Indeed, experts have been equated to litigations. As stated by Robert R. Detlefsen, â€Å"The expert witness has become a fixture in high-stakes civil trials†.5 This is factual for a broad array of explanations, not the least of which is the growing difficulty of issues that comprise contemporary tort litigation and the continuously evolving procedures in the management of business processes: â€Å"the use of experts in courtroom trials is so prevalent today that the question confronting litigators is usually not whether to hire an expert witness, but rather how many to employ and where to find them.†6 Hence, this essay will discuss the selection, role, and responsibilities of the expert witness in the criminal justice system in the UK. Role of Expert Witnesses in the En glish Legal System Just as the essence or value of the testimony of an expert witness differs, so does the expert witness’s role in the legal system. In several instances, the expert witness is employed to discern issues or loopholes in the statement of fact witnesses. Expert statement, in other instances, is required to satisfy the ‘burden of proof’7 so as to create a defence or claim. Expert witnesses, occasionally, are used mainly to compete with the experts of the opposing side and to further strengthen the defence or claim of the proponent. Even though experts are generally determined by their role as witnesses at litigations or in deposition, they can help lawyers in the establishment of the case prior to trial as well. Lawyers may use experts to assess the work and official documents of other experts.8 Moreover, experts may help lawyers make sense of the technical features of a case by analysing documents and information generated by the parties and by stu dying and analysing subject matters in a case.9 Furthermore, experts can assist in the preparation of requests for information and documents which may turn into acceptable proofs, or they can formulate questions for cross-examination and direct questioning of witnesses.10 Expert recommendation may be crucial in strengthening the case prior to the trial by formulating compelling causation theories11 which should be presented to and reviewed by the jury. Another major role of expert witnesses may be to carry out trials linked to a component implication in the litigation and to

Monday, February 10, 2020

The Nature of Human Soul Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Nature of Human Soul - Essay Example Plato’s Phaedo has rightly considered as one of the most famous philosophic dialogues about the nature of the human be the ng and the place of soul in it. Plato’s philosophy of human nature and soul is quite straightforward: there is no separation of soul and body, and even death does not break this relationship. Plato asserts that the truth of life is in the way humans hear or see it, as both sight and hearing are the two accurate witnesses of the actual acquirement of knowledge. â€Å"And the thought is best when the mind is gathered into herself and none of these things trouble her – neither sounds nor sights nor pain nor any pleasure – when she has as little as possible to do with the body† (Plato). The soul is the miracle of life, through which humans rethink their deeds and the actions of others, filling themselves with fears, loves, fancies, and lusts (Plato).         Lieutenant Commander Data may be well deprived of the lusts, fancies, and loves that are familiar to humans, but the complexity of his exquisite mind should not be disregarded. Data grasp new information coming to him from the world around him with unusual mental hunger. He has a book he likes because it reminds him of the special moments in his life, and he confesses that he and Tasha Yar used to be intimate (Star Trek). Data demonstrates the sensitivity and respect a machine without a soul would never show, and based on Plato’s writings, it is possible to assume that Data’s body is inseparable from his soul. The latter helps him to understand the complexity of the world.            Like Plato, Descartes was extrthe only concerned with the questions of the human body and soul. However, unlike Plato, the perspective Descartes chooses is called ‘doubt’. In the First Meditation, Descartes asserts that reason and thinking capabilities are the foundational pillars of human existence. To a large extent, thinking in Descartes is the same as the soul in Plato. Descartes writes: â€Å"although the senses sometimes deceive us about objects that are very small or distant, that doesn’t apply to my belief that I am here, sitting g by the fire, wearing a winter dressing-gown, holding this piece of paper in my hands, and so on†.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Alcoholism Feature Article Essay Example for Free

Alcoholism Feature Article Essay Introduction (Opening facts): Alcohol is the most dangerous drug in Australia, beating crack and heroin into second and third place in the ranking, according to recent studies. The current research used data from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that almost 60% of 18-24 year old current drinkers, who failed to complete high school, began drinking before the age of 16. The survey also revealed that teens are more likely to try alcohol for the first time during the summer months, along with other harmful drugs or cigarettes. Teens are susceptible to alcohol mostly during this time due to more idle time, fewer responsibilities and less adult supervision. Effects and results: With more than 1 in five teens between the ages of 14 and 19 of age, consuming alcohol on a weekly basis, the risk of cancer, digestive diseases and addicted related medical issues are predicted to rise. Those who drink regularly have been proven to have a lower productivity rate than those of unaffected areas. Underage drinking plays a significant role in risky, sexual and often violent behaviour, which can lead to other health issues or injuries. As a result of this, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in people ages 15 to 20. Deadly crashes involving alcohol are twice as common in teens compared with people 21 and older. Further more, mixing drinking with swimming or boating can be fatal. Four out of 10 teens that drown have consumed alcohol. Underage drinking has also been linked with deaths and injuries from burns, falls, alcohol poisoning and suicide. Consequently, the total cost attribute to underage drinking includes costs of traffic cras hes, violent crime and injuries and treatment, equates to over $15.2 billion per year. Signs and prevention: From the results of underage drinking proving deadly and most harmful, people in today’s modern society need to wake up to the signs towards alcoholism, especially towards younger victims. Mood changes, irritability and defensiveness are physical signs, which can be easily recognised. Another example is further school problems such as poor attendance, low grades and rebellion against family rules. Although many of the symptoms may seem typical towards an ordinary teenager, parents and carers should still be aware of these as they may reflect on how their child may be suffering from alcoholism. ‘It is critically important to take every opportunity we can, throughout the year to talk to our young people about the real risk of substance abuse and effective measures for avoiding it, so they will be informed and capable of making the right responsible decision.’ Common Experiences: A recent victim who has suffered from alcohol as a result to his death, is Liam Davies (16). As reported after New Years, Davies drank the tainted alcohol while celebrating New Year’s in Sydney with friends. He was rushed to a local hospital where he was in an unstable critical condition from alcohol poisoning. The Davies family released a statement asking for Australians to be careful when holidaying abroad or drinking in general. â€Å"We would like to make people aware of the risks associated with consuming alcohol, especially without appropriate supervision†.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Homeland Security :: Terrorist Attacks Terrorism

Homeland Security   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When we pause to think about all that has happened in years past, we truly are lucky. The purpose of this paper is to define and give detailed information about Homeland Security in the United States. I hope to inform people as to why we constantly live in fear. I will give detailed information about what the government is doing to solve this problem. Also I will give possible solutions to our current predicament, based on extensive research and knowledge.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Homeland Security is a relatively new agency that was created by the president, because of the terrorist attacks on America. President George W. Bush vows to never let an attack happen to America again. Therefore he created the office or agency, of Homeland Security. This group is backed by director of this group is ex-senator Tom Ridge. George W. Bush specifically appointed him. This group watches Americans and the world extremely closely (Security, a top priority in new budget). The mission statement of this group is to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States, reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur (Homeland Security Actions). The Department of Homeland Security is responsible for securing our nation's borders and transportation systems, they manage who and what enters our homeland and work to prevent the entry of terrorists and the instruments of terrorism while ensuring the speedy flow of legitimate traffic (White House Online). Many dubious terrorist groups and organizations are under a microscopic viewpoint from the group of Homeland Security. Terrorist attacks on America have sparked a national fear that many people face daily. People live in fear for a variety of reasons. Scores of Americans fear traveling abroad, flying, and people of Middle Eastern decent (The Attack on America: September 11, 2001). There is unfairness towards people of the Islam religion, and people who are of Middle Eastern decent. This is wrong. Just because a strong-minded group of people attacked innocent civilians to prove a political point and spark fear in millions does not mean we should discriminate on those people. But because of these attacks on America there have been many different security changes made, in the hopes to improve our safety. Such as at airports, the military was placed as security in the airports. This was the first time that the military could be placed in airports.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Human Nature and Discontent in King Lear †Unfinished Essay

The Elizabethans believed, or pretended to believe, that the natural world reflected a hierarchy that mirrored good government and stable monarchy. Even our scientific age talks about â€Å"laws of nature† and â€Å"good government through good laws. † Shakespeare’s era contrasted â€Å"nature† and art, just as one can consider an essential â€Å"human nature† contrasted with culture. As well, Shakespeare’s era distinguished â€Å"natural† and â€Å"unnatural† behaviors; the latter would include mistreating family members, opposing cultural, political, religious, and social â€Å"norms†, as well as presenting the eternal question of fate. King Lear identifies familial relationships and their flaws, questions whether human society is the product of nature or technology, and whether human nature is fundamentally selfish or generous. More than just a consistent theme in the play, this concept of â€Å"nature† in society and practice reveals the core of human nature. In King Lear, nature itself is also an object of controversy. Often used to identify things that are pure, true and peaceful, nature is known also as a device used for the cruel and explicit actions by all things evil or unfortunate. King Lear presents a dichotomy of good and evil, and Shakespeare hopes the reader will consider the harsher, two-faced qualities of nature in his tragedy. The connection between human beings and the â€Å"natural world† is often neglected. Why? Perhaps the concept of a similarity between humans and brute nature repels â€Å"civility† or advance in society; this explains the extreme use of animal imagery as offense in the play. Thus, it is reasonable to ask, what constitutes this highly offensive and scorned â€Å"unnatural† behaviour? According to passages in King Lear, the most common fault of and insult to a human, is to ill-treat family, and more specifically, powerful and royal family. This is evident when a very offended Lear condemns his daughter Cordelia’s unsatisfactory praise, to her suitor, the King of France: â€Å"? T’avert your liking a more worthier way than on a wretch whom Nature is ashamed? † (Act 1, Scene 1, line 210) Here, King Lear almost personifies â€Å"Nature†, and as something capable of passing judgement: a strict division between the proper and acceptable action versus the intolerable one. The concept of nature representing justice and truth is also apparent in the sub-plot when Gloucester denounces Edgar as his son, followed by his praise for Edmund’s loyalty: â€Å"? Loyal and natural boy, I’ll work the means to make thee capable? † (Act 2, Scene 1, line 83) Thus, the notion of nature as a compliment or praise is similar to society’s view of normalcy. Traditionally and contemporarily speaking, tolerance and acceptance within a community is strictly connected with standardization, and predictability. The Fool, with his sly and witty remarks, portrays a perfect example of this unpredictable and unexpected speech: â€Å"? Truth’s a dog must to kennel; he must be whipp’d out when the lady’s Brach may stand by th’fire and stink.. † (Act 1, Scene 4, line 105) Throughout the play, Edmund’s connection with nature is extremely confusing, and uncommon in his class, deeming his very existence â€Å"unnatural† from the start. As the plot progresses, his role swings back and forth from â€Å"natural† to â€Å"unnatural†, depending on his actions. This is somewhat unusual, as most characters are classified as good or bad, natural or natural, within their first few lines in the play, and here the reader is forced to constantly make assumptions and form opinions about Edmund. More obvious attempts at opposing the â€Å"norms† in King Lear include Cordelia’s modest praise of her father, the Duke of Albany’s eventual recognition and action against the ploys of his wife and her sister, and Kent’s protective disobedience to Lear.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Theological Understanding Of God s Life - 918 Words

In the previous section, I have argued that Barth’s understanding of God’s being in act helps us preserve the ontological integrity of the triune God in the incarnation. In this section, I will delve into the theological understanding of Christ’s death with respect to the Trinitarian atonement. First, I elaborate how Barth understands the death of Christ in terms of God’s being in act. I then argue how his understanding enriches our theological understanding of the Trinitarian atonement. The ontological chasm in the Trinity also causes a problem in interpreting the death of Jesus Christ. Since it is considered that the humanity of the Son does not touch God’s own proper being, God in eternity also does not â€Å"feel the assault of pain by definition.† If this is the case, what incarnate Jesus Christ has experienced in time remains his human experience ad extra. As a natural consequence, the second person of the Trinity suffered and d ied only as man or in the flesh. In other words, all Jesus has done in time strictly remains an economic phenomenon. The question is, is there disconnection between the person of the Son and the locus of his suffering? Barth’s answer would be negative. He denies such separation and posits a different perspective, derived from his understanding of God’s being in act. He writes, â€Å"The reality of God in His revelation cannot be bracketed by an only, as though somewhere behind His revelation there stood another reality of God; theShow MoreRelatedA Spiritual Leader Of A Congregation1048 Words   |  5 Pageswill identify the writer s personal theological, philosophical, and theoretical model for working in a local ministry community, along with a plan for providing ministry as a pastor in a local congregation. The writer will begin by defining the words theological, philosophical, and theoretical to obtain a better understanding of the models to apply them in the local ministry community. 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